S P D F Block Elements Pdf Download
s p d f block elements pdf download
The s, p, d and f block elements are the four main groups of elements in the periodic table. They are named after the type of orbital that is being filled by the valence electrons of the elements in each group. The s block elements are in groups 1 and 2, the p block elements are in groups 13 to 18, the d block elements are in groups 3 to 12, and the f block elements are in two separate rows at the bottom of the table.
The s, p, d and f block elements have different properties and characteristics depending on their electronic configuration, atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity. They also show different trends and variations in their physical and chemical properties across the periods and down the groups. Some of the important properties and trends of these elements are summarized below:
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The s block elements have low ionization energies and high reactivity. They tend to lose one or two electrons to form positive ions (cations) with an inert gas configuration. They react with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen gas. They also react with halogens to form ionic halides.
The p block elements have varied properties and reactivity. They tend to gain one to six electrons to form negative ions (anions) with an inert gas configuration, or share electrons to form covalent bonds with other elements. They can form oxides, halides, hydrides, sulfides and other compounds with different oxidation states.
The d block elements have high melting and boiling points, high densities, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and metallic luster. They tend to form positive ions (cations) with variable oxidation states by losing electrons from both s and d orbitals. They can form complex compounds with ligands that coordinate to the central metal ion.
The f block elements have very high atomic numbers and are mostly synthetic and radioactive. They tend to form positive ions (cations) with variable oxidation states by losing electrons from both s and f orbitals. They can also form complex compounds with ligands that coordinate to the central metal ion.
If you want to learn more about the s, p, d and f block elements, you can download some useful PDF files from the following links:
[The s-Block Elements - NCERT]
[The p-Block Elements - NCERT]
[The d- and f-Block Elements - NCERT]
[The Periodic Table and Periodicity - Open University of Sri Lanka]
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